Main article: Bear worship There is evidence that connects the Greek goddess Artemis with a cult of the bear. Girls danced as "bears" in her honour, and might not marry before undergoing this ceremony Thomas , p. According to mythology, the goddess once transformed a nymph into a bear and then into the constellation Ursa Major. The existence of an ancient bear cult among Neanderthals in the Middle Paleolithic period has been a topic of discussion spurred by archaeological findings Wunn, , p. Ancient bear bones have been discovered in several different caves and their peculiar arrangement are believed by some archaeologists to be evidence of a bear cult during the Paleolithic era.
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Internet Address: b-boyd tamu. Many youth-serving organizations serve youth who are primarily from advantaged families Hobbs, While 4-H prides itself on providing leadership opportunities to all youth, attracting at-risk youth can be challenging.
Service-learning projects are one method for increasing leadership opportunities for at-risk youth. Service-learning projects offer teens the opportunity to practice leadership skills and reflect on the experience to learn more about themselves. Skills such as brainstorming, decision-making, setting goals, and working with others can be taught and practiced as teens plan and carry out significant service projects.
Experiential learning takes place when a person is involved in an activity, looks back at it critically, determines what was useful or important to remember, and uses this information to perform another activity. In the past few years, research in the area of experiential learning has strengthened this approach by adding several key processing steps beyond simply doing the activity or experience.
These steps include: Having the participants experience the activity--perform or do it; Having the participants share the experience by describing what happened; Asking participants to process the experience to identify common themes; Having participants generalize from the experience to form principles or guidelines that can be used in real-life situations, e.
Providing an experience alone does not create "experiential learning. This is a "learn by doing" or experiential process. Addressing each step in the process assures a purposeful plan to obtain a specific goal Bonn, Woyach and Cox identified 12 principles that make effective leadership programs. The first five principles relate directly to the outcomes or content of leadership programs.
The remaining seven principles speak to the process of leadership development. The 12 principles state that leadership programs should accomplish the following. Help youth learn specific knowledge and skills related to leadership. Facilitate the development of individual strengths and leadership styles.
Promote awareness, understanding, and tolerance of other people, cultures and societies. Embody high expectations of, confidence in, and respect for the teens served. The participating schools were chosen for their location and predominantly minority student population. The three 4-HYCA groups were organized as an after-school program. Hobbs identified transportation as a barrier to participation in youth activities for many minority youth.
While the after-school setting eliminated this barrier, it created additional challenges. Participants had just completed a 7-hour day, spent largely sitting desks and listening to instruction.
Their energy levels were high, and their attention spans at a minimum. A model that combined experiential education with service learning was chosen to engage the students. County Extension 4-H Agents and volunteers met weekly with each group of students for 14 weeks. During each weekly session, participants were introduced to a leadership concept, such as decision-making models, and then provided the opportunity to practice that skill using experiential activities.
The key to experiential learning is reflection about what was actually learned during the experiential activity and how that skill or knowledge can be applied to real-life situations. Upon completing the activity, such as the Spider Web Rohnke, , students were asked how they applied the decision-making model previously discussed. Did they brainstorm many possible solutions and discuss them before attempting to complete the activity? Following this period of reflection, the teens were asked to apply the new leadership skill as they planned their service activity.
Table 1 outlines the skills and experiential activities used in 4-HYCA.
Cowtails and Cobras II