Because personal computers first used DB connectors for their serial and parallel ports, when the PC serial port began to use 9-pin connectors, they were often labeled as DB-9 instead of DE-9 connectors, due to an ignorance of the fact that B represented a shell size. It is now common to see DE-9 connectors sold as DB-9 connectors. DB-9 nearly always refers to a 9-pin connector with an E size shell. The non-standard pin D-sub connectors for external floppy drives and video output on most of the Amiga computers are usually labeled DB, even though their shell size is two pins smaller than ordinary DB sockets. Cannon also produced "combo" D-subs with larger contacts in place of some of the normal contacts, for use for high-current, high-voltage, or co-axial inserts.
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Because personal computers first used DB connectors for their serial and parallel ports, when the PC serial port began to use 9-pin connectors, they were often labeled as DB-9 instead of DE-9 connectors, due to an ignorance of the fact that B represented a shell size.
It is now common to see DE-9 connectors sold as DB-9 connectors. DB-9 nearly always refers to a 9-pin connector with an E size shell. The non-standard pin D-sub connectors for external floppy drives and video output on most of the Amiga computers are usually labeled DB, even though their shell size is two pins smaller than ordinary DB sockets. Cannon also produced "combo" D-subs with larger contacts in place of some of the normal contacts, for use for high-current, high-voltage, or co-axial inserts.
The DBW3 variant was commonly used for high-performance video connections; this variant provided 10 regular 20 pins plus three coaxial contacts for the red, green, and blue video signals. They are common in SCSI attachments. It is about half the length of a D-sub and its primary application is space-grade technology. Typical applications[ edit ] D-sub connectors. The hexagonal pillars bolt at both ends of each connector have a threaded stud fastening the connectors to the metal panel.
They also have threaded sockets to receive jackscrews on the cable shell, holding the plug and socket together. Communications ports[ edit ] The widest application of D-subs is for RS serial communications, though the standard did not make this connector mandatory. RS devices originally used the DB25, but for many applications the less common signals were omitted, allowing a DE-9 to be used.
The standard specifies a male connector for terminal equipment and a female connector for modems, but many variations exist. IBM PC-compatible computers tend to have male connectors at the device and female connectors at the modems.
Later Macintosh models use 8-pin miniature DIN connectors instead. Many uninterruptible power supply units have a DE-9F connector on them in order to signal to the attached computer via an RS interface. Often these do not send data serially to the computer but instead use the handshaking control lines to indicate low battery, power failure, or other conditions. Such usage is not standardized between manufacturers and may require special cables.
Network ports[ edit ] DE9 connectors were used for some token ring networks as well as other computer networks. The Attachment Unit Interfaces that were used with 10BASE5 "thick net" in the s and s used DA15 connectors for connectivity between the Medium Attachment Units and Ethernet network interface cards , albeit with a sliding latch to lock the connectors together instead of the usual hex studs with threaded holes.
The sliding latch was intended to be quicker to engage and disengage and to work in places where jackscrews could not be used for reasons of component shape. DE-9 connectors are commonly used in Controller Area Network CAN : female connectors are on the bus while male connectors are on devices. Even though these all use the same DE9 connector, the displays cannot all be interchanged and monitors or video interfaces may be damaged if connected to an incompatible device using the same connector.
DE15 connectors are similar to DE9 connectors see above. The earlier Apple IIgs used the same connector for the same purpose, but with an incompatible pinout. Game controller ports[ edit ] The DE9 connector used on a variety of early home consoles and computers Starting in the late s the Atari game console used modified DE9 connectors male on the system, female on the controller for its game controller connectors.
The Atari joystick ports had bodies entirely of molded plastic without the metal shield, and they omitted the pair of fastening screws. In the years following, various video game consoles and home computers adopted the same connector for their own game ports, though they were not all interoperable.
Some computers supported additional buttons, and on some computers additional devices, such as a computer mouse , a light pen , or a graphics tablet were also supported via the game port. Unlike the basic one-button digital joysticks and the basic paddles, such devices were not typically interchangeable between different systems. The ZX Spectrum lacked a built-in joystick connector of any kind but aftermarket interfaces provided the ability to connect DE9 joysticks.
Many Apple II computers also used DE9 connectors for joysticks, but they had a female port on the computer and a male on the controller, used analog rather than digital sticks, and the pin-out was completely unlike that used on the aforementioned systems. Sega switched to proprietary controller ports for the Saturn and Dreamcast. DA15S connectors are used for PC joystick connectors, where each DA15 connector supports two joysticks each with two analog axes and two buttons.
In other words, one DA15S "game adapter" connector has 4 analog potentiometer inputs and 4 digital switch inputs. Some joysticks with more than two axes or more than two buttons use the signals designated for both joysticks. Conversely, Y-adapter cables are available that allow two separate joysticks to be connected to a single DA15 game adapter port; if a joystick connected to one of these Y-adapters has more than two axes or buttons, only the first two of each will work.
Creative Labs introduced this adaptation. Other[ edit ] pin sockets on Macintosh computers are typically single-ended SCSI connectors, combining all signal returns into one contact again in contrast to the Centronics C50 connector typically found on the peripheral, supplying a separate return contact for each signal , while older Sun hardware uses DD50 connectors for Fast-SCSI equipment.
The complete range of D-sub connectors also includes DA15s one row of 7 and one of 8 , DC37s one row of 18 and one of 19 , and DD50s two rows of 17 and one of 16 ; these are often used in industrial products, the way version being commonly used on rotary and linear encoders.
The early Macintosh and late Apple II computers used an obscure pin D-sub for connecting external floppy disk drives. The Commodore Amiga used an equally unusual pin version for both its video output and connection to an external floppy disk drive.
A few patch panels have been made which have the DB25 connectors on the back with phone jacks or even TRS phone connectors on the front, however these are normally wired for TASCAM, which is more common outside of broadcasting. In broadcast and professional video, "parallel digital" is a digital video interface that uses DB25 connectors, per the SMPTE M specification adopted in the late s.
D-SUB 37 connectors are commonly used in Hospital facilities as an interface between hospital beds and nurse call systems, allowing for the connection and signaling of Nurse Call, Bed Exit, and Cord out including TV entertainment and lighting controls.
DB connectors are commonly used to carry analog signals for beam displacement and color to laser projectors, as specified in the ISP-DB25 protocol published by the International Laser Display Association . Wire-contact attachment types[ edit ] A male PCB -mounting DD50 connector plug There are at least seven different methods used to attach wires to the contacts in D-sub connectors.
Solder-bucket or solder-cup contacts have a cavity into which the stripped wire is inserted and hand-soldered. Insulation displacement contacts IDCs allow a ribbon cable to be forced onto sharp tines on the back of the contacts; this action pierces the insulation of all the wires simultaneously. This is a very quick means of assembly whether done by hand or machine.
Crimp contacts are assembled by inserting a stripped wire end into a cavity in the rear of the contact, then crushing the cavity using a crimp tool, causing the cavity to grip the wire tightly at many points. The crimped contact is then inserted into the connector where it locks into place. Individual crimped pins can be removed later by inserting a special tool into the rear of the connector.
PCB pins are soldered directly to a printed circuit board and not to a wire. Traditionally through hole plated THP board style pins were used print but increasingly gull wing surface mount SMD connections are used, although the latter frequently exhibit solder pad contact problems when exposed to mechanical stress. These connectors are frequently mounted at a right angle to the PCB, allowing a cable to be plugged into the edge of the PCB assembly.
While angled connectors traditionally occupied significant room on the PCB, flat SMD connector variants are produced by various manufacturers. The PCB connectors are available in variants with either inch or metric pitch of the soldered contacts.
Tolerances are typically large enough to allow the mounting of the smaller connectors regardless of the pitch variant used, but this does not hold true for the larger connectors. Wire wrap connections are made by wrapping solid wire around a square post with a wire wrap tool. This type of connection is often used in developing prototypes.
The wire wrap and IDC connections styles had to contend with incompatible pin spacing to the 0. Usage[ edit ] The pin D-sub connector is still occasionally used in recording studios for multi-channel analog audio and AES digital audio. The D-sub connector family is now out of general usage in the computer industry, due to size and cost.
For portable devices such as PDAs , MP3 players, laptops, and smartphones, the D-sub connector is far too large to fit.
Because of their relative complexity the D-shaped metal shield, the screws and nuts , D-sub connectors are inherently more expensive than later connectors that superseded them. The physical design of D-sub connectors is ill-suited for consumer plug-and-play applications. Thin metal pins, especially in higher-density connectors, are easily bent or broken, particularly if frequently plugged in by touch behind equipment.
The need to tighten screws for a secure connection is cumbersome. Although ESD - and EMI -resistant D-sub connectors exist, the fundamental design was never intended to protect from electrostatic discharge or electromagnetic interference or facilitate very high frequency interconnections.
A notable exception to this replacement is on the few analog CRT monitors still in use: the analog version of the DVI connector is similar in price and more complex than the D-sub, so the shift away from D-subs was slow in this case. These connectors tend to be less rugged and durable than D-sub connectors—for example, the SATA connector as part of a cable assembly is specified to withstand only 50 manual insertions—but the robustness of the D-sub is more than is needed in many consumer product applications.
Due to the environments within factories and mills, serial and parallel protocols are commonly used and in some cases current standards for their combination of maximum cable length, sufficient speed, and compatibility with old equipment with long life expectancies.
As D-Sub connectors have remained popular with these specifications, they are still commonly in use today where their robustness is required.
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