LEPTODACTYLUS FUSCUS PDF

Comment In the Leptodactylus fuscus group of Heyer, , Sci. Los Angeles Co. See account by Cei, , Monit. Rana fusca Schneider, , Hist. Lescure and Marty, , Collect. Patrimoines Nat.

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Licence This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed.

Abstract A new species of Leptodactylus frog Anura: Leptodactylidae from the South American Gran Chaco, morphologically similar and previously confused with the widespread Leptodactylus mystacinus, is described through the use of multiple sources of evidence molecular, external morphology, coloration, osteology, bioacoustics, and behavior. The phylogenetic analysis with partial sequences of mitochondrial rDNA genes 12S and 16S recovered the new species within the L.

The new species was recovered as sister taxa of L. This new frog is characterized by a moderate body size SVL Introduction The South American Gran Chaco ecoregion includes portions of northern and central Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, western of Paraguay, and a small area in southwestern Brazil. Temperature and rainfall in this region contribute to an increasing gradient of aridity from East to West, which have led to a distinction between Humid and Dry Chaco subregions Dinerstein et al.

This genus comprises 74 species, occurring from southern North America to central South America, including the West Indies Frost, Heyer a , based on morphology and behavioral characters, assigned Leptodactylus species to five phenetic groups: Leptodactylus fuscus, L. The L. The monophyly of the L. Its members have similar external morphology and share some particular reproductive features like oviposition in foam nests that are sheltered in underground chambers, and partial independence of tadpoles from the aquatic environment Heyer, b , Leptodactylus mystacinus is a widely distributed species of the L.

This variation has led to the proposal of some authors that L. In the present work we studied specimens of L. This new species was distinguished from L. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis under Maximum Parsimony MP and Bayesian approach in order to test its phylogenetic position. Materials and Methods Molecular procedures We obtained new sequences for 23 specimens previously assigned to L.

Other sequences used in this work come from GenBank Appendix I. Chromatograms obtained from the automated sequencer were processed using Sequencher v4. The phylogenetic analyses included sequences of all species in the L. We excluded the 16S sequence of L. We used only the available 12S fragment of L. Additional doubtful or missing sequences were excluded of the analyses, or exchanged for others available in GenBank see details in Appendix I.

We used as outgroup sequences of all species groups within Leptodactylus: L. The isolated fragments were concatenated using Sequence Matrix v1. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with 1, characters, including 68 terminals. The phylogenetic analyses were performed under MP and Bayesian approach. The first was done with TNT v1. To construct trees under Bayesian approach we firstly used PartitionFinder v1. We performed the analysis in MrBayes v3.

For the estimation of sequence divergences within the L. List of specimens in Appendix II. Institutional abbreviations follow Sabaj Measurements were recorded with a Mitutoyo digital caliper 0. Sex was determined by visual inspection of male secondary sexual characters and presence of ovarian follicles in females. For comparison, specimens of L. For comparison purposes, we cleared and stained three adult males of L.

Advertisement calls We analyzed advertisement calls of five males IIBP-H , LGE , and three unvouchered specimens of the new species and advertisement calls obtained from 13 males of L. The recordings are deposited in the sound collection of the LGE. In addition, we analyzed advertisement calls of 41 males of L. All recordings were analyzed employing Sound Forge Pro v Nomenclatural acts The electronic version of this article in portable document format will represent a published work according to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ICZN , and hence the new names contained in the electronic version are effectively published under that Code from the electronic edition alone.

This published work and the nomenclatural acts it contains have been registered in ZooBank, the online registration system for the ICZN. The LSID for this publication is: urn:lsid:zoobank. Results Molecular phylogenetic analysis The MP analysis resulted in four most-parsimonious trees of 3, steps Fig.

Within the L. The same relationships were recovered in the Bayesian approach Appendix IV. A Phylogenetic relationships among species in the genus Leptodactylus. B Phylogenetic relationships of Leptodactylus apepyta sp. Photos: Diego Baldo.

DOI: Both lineages have an allopatric geographic distribution and correspond to the two species distinguished in addition by morphology and coloration. The Bayesian approach showed some subtle differences in topology with respect to the MP analysis Appendix IV , but in both analyses Leptodactylus and the L. However, this relationships of the L. The relationships within the clade containing the new species were consistent with those recovered under MP. The new species showed significant genetic divergences p-distances in the 16S rDNA sequences, which ranged 3—4.

Furthermore, the new species showed an intra-specific variability up to 1. Assignation of available names Leptodactylus mystacinus Burmeister, Type MLU unnumbered, according to Heyer We examined the type specimen through high quality color photographs Appendix VI.

Although we did not have topotypic specimens to include in our analysis, we examined specimens from nearby localities Los Nogales and Las Rosas; Santa Fe province; 86 and 95 km, respectively, from Rosario. Their morphology and the location of Rosario, deeply nested within the geographic distribution of lineage II of our phylogenetic analysis, allowed us to assign the name L. Cystignathus labialis Cope, Specimen USNM considered holotype by Cochran , which is actually a lectotype designation, according to Frost Heyer studied in detail the type series and considered them conspecific with L.

Based on the diagnostic characters identified by us see below , we tried to assign these specimens to one of the two lineages recovered in our phylogenetic analysis. Regarding this evidence, C. Species description.

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Leptodactylus fuscus

Licence This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. Abstract A new species of Leptodactylus frog Anura: Leptodactylidae from the South American Gran Chaco, morphologically similar and previously confused with the widespread Leptodactylus mystacinus, is described through the use of multiple sources of evidence molecular, external morphology, coloration, osteology, bioacoustics, and behavior. The phylogenetic analysis with partial sequences of mitochondrial rDNA genes 12S and 16S recovered the new species within the L. The new species was recovered as sister taxa of L. This new frog is characterized by a moderate body size SVL Introduction The South American Gran Chaco ecoregion includes portions of northern and central Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, western of Paraguay, and a small area in southwestern Brazil. Temperature and rainfall in this region contribute to an increasing gradient of aridity from East to West, which have led to a distinction between Humid and Dry Chaco subregions Dinerstein et al.

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Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799)

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Leptodactylus fuscus

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